How To Clear Socket Buffer

How To Clear Socket Bufferi can make out one think from your reply that UDP buffer all the time. You need the buffer because one packet could arrive before another in a wrong order. How do you empty the buffers and cache on a Linux system?. You can use the SetSocketOption () method to force the receive buffer to 0: sock. 2 posts views Thread by Macca | last post: by C# / C Sharp. while ( (num_of_bytes = recv ( c_socket, memblock, file_buf, 0 )) > 0) dest. This method does not actually erase the data in the buffer, but it is named as if it did because it will most often be used in situations in which that might as well be the case. Please clear me. Is there a way to clear sockets if you don't like the result? Evrae Altana Diabloii. an error condition returned by sock_error, closing of the socket, and. To find the actual memory usage, /proc/net/sockstat is the most promising: sockets: used 3640 TCP: inuse 48 orphan 49 tw 63 alloc 2620 mem 248 UDP: inuse 6 mem 10 UDPLITE: inuse 0 RAW: inuse 0 FRAG: inuse 0 memory 0. namespace SocketServer {class Program. This allows the video to play longer before it needs to buffer again. You send it from your buffer, it goes to the buffer in the TCP Stack, and in reality then TCP sends when it is good and ready. So, Please help me to clean the buffer variable, before it is being filled with the incoming string. The setReceiveBufferSize() method of Java Socket class sets the SO_RCVBUF option to the given value for the specified socket. Sockets Tutorial with Python 3 part 2. So a process asks for 256 KiB buffer with setsockopt(SO_RCVBUF) then it will get 512 KiB buffer space. Socket, SocketOptionName. by reducing the size of the socket. The figure in the Total line at the top of the . How does it affect Programming? On various occasions, you may need to clear the unwanted buffer so as to get the next input in the desired container and not in . It returns with the number of characters sent. flush( u ,"input") flushes only the input buffer. It should look like this in general: while ( (count = recv (source_sd, buffer, sizeof buffer, 0)) > 0) { write (target_fd, buffer, count); // or fwrite (buffer, 1, count, target_file); } And opening and closing a file every time around the loop is. It's not starting to read from the beginning each time. Z-Buffer or Depth-Buffer method in C++; Buffer Type in C#; Buffer BlockCopy in C#; A-Buffer Method in C/C++? Buffer GetByte Example in C#; Buffer SetByte Example in C#;. All serializable datastructures are supported, including Buffer. Re: Clear socket buffer. We make use of First and third party cookies to improve our user experience. inside while loop 1)a string "abc" shows up, in. If the socket persists in LISTEN (not TIME_WAIT), a thread somewhere still has the socket open. Could someone show me a sample how to flush the socket. Re: Clear socket buffer. i thought the dropping on packet will happen at head. The function fflush (stdin) is used to flush or clear the output buffer of the stream. how to clear socket buffer. There is no way to prevent this behaviour because TCP does not support the. Of course, I guses it's possible that the server could return a False value, but even. For SOCK_DGRAM sockets, data is extracted from the first queued message, up to the size of the specified buffer. recv(buffer_size) if not data: break print data client_socket. Besides, even if it drops unsynced data, saying that. The /sockread command reads bytes from the receive buffer into the specified variable. Well normal sockets aren't truely buffered. Could someone show me a sample how to flush the socket sending buffer? Thanks a lot. If you specify a %var variable, a line of text ending with a Carriage Return/LineFeed is read into %var. How can I force a socket to send the data in its buffer?. I want to buffer null, but unfortuantely do not know the place to clear it. Empty; // Retrieve the state object and the handler socket // from the asynchronous state object. Keep in mind the kernel will double any socket buffer allocation for overhead. Looks like you need to put this method result = client. Contains(vbCrLf)) Dim rxMessage As String =. It should look like this in general: while ( (count = recv (source_sd, buffer, sizeof buffer, 0)) > 0) {. C: how to clear out buffer from a read() on a socket. Invoke this method before using a sequence of channel-read or put operations to fill this buffer. to 26214400) by (as root): sysctl -w net. May 9, 2006 #2 Hel rune + TP scroll + transmute = clean sockets. When the other end sends the last data and closes the socket, your app receives TCP FINish packet/messsge. The size of these buffers can now be configured dynamically for the SAP ABAP application server using the parameter is/socket_buffer_size. When it is used after the scanf (), it flushes the input buffer also. Is there a way to clear sockets if you don't like the result? Evrae Altana Diabloii. The default buffer size on Linux is 131071. Finally, I use goto to jump back and to continue reading remaining lines in the socket's receive buffer. ERROR: An operation on a socket could not be performed because the system lacked sufficient buffer space or because a queue was full. how to clear/clean mbufs (network buffer space)?. Provides support for NI data acquisition and signal conditioning devices. flip() Read data out of the Buffer; Call buffer. The things you say about sync are wrong: according to the linux doc, writting to drop_cache will only clear clean content (already synced). Understanding send buffer and receive buffer configuration in UM for. This is the best explanation I could find, but mem isn't addressed there. The structure is at the core of the network subsystem of the Linux kernel, and we now introduce both the main fields of the structure and the functions used to act on it. In other words set the amount of memory that is allocated for each TCP socket when it is opened or created while transferring files: WARNING!. I tried the following code: int ret_read = read (return_events [index]. There are no methods for flushing a sockets receive buffer because the buffer should not contain anything other than the data you wish to read. If by "flush" you mean throw away any pending incoming data then you can either use select () like you do, or set the socket to nonblocking and read in a loop until you're out of data. Gilbert For a free Java interface to Freechess. Remove message from udp socket buffer. How do I “flush” a TCP Client Buffer in C# socket listener. how to clear/reset buffer when I use BufferedReader?. Clear only the input buffer. Hi everyone! I took over a project that uses FreeRTOS and LwIP, the latter with the Socket API, i. How does socket buffer work? TCP sockets use buffering in the protocol stack. hold the latest packet from the network. fd, recv_buffer, sizeof (recv_buffer)); if (-1 == ret_read) { if (EAGAIN. On various occasions, you may need to clear the unwanted buffer so as to get the next input in the desired container and not in the buffer of the previous variable. If by "flush" you mean throw away any pending incoming data then you can either use select () like you do, or set the socket to nonblocking and read in a loop until you're out of data. Clear socket buffer It works fine, but it generates a warning 'socket_read_byte_list() : timeout' in Polyscope log section as the last call of . So you need to determine where the end of a message occurs. You really can't flush" any socket . The client's pool socket-buffer size-should match the setting for the servers the pool uses, as in these example cache. Temporary solution was to reboot the machine to remedy the problem. There are no methods for flushing a sockets receive buffer because the buffer should not contain anything other than the data you wish to read. For example, in the case of C after encountering "scanf()", if we need to input a character array or character, and in the case of C++, after encountering the "cin. Invoke this method before using a sequence of channel-read or put operations to fill this buffer. In these cases, I call the following function to clear the socket buffer : def clear_socket_buffer(socket=“1”):. To start viewing messages, select the forum that you want to visit from the selection below. How to clear the intenal buffer of a socket? Robin the Round Hi, I'm writing a UDP Listener to monitor all incoming UDP messages: private void ReceiveThreadFkt() EndPoint recEP =new IPEndPoint(IPAddress. Socket send buffer after one byte of out-of-band data is written by application. This is described on man 7 tcp. readLine() inside the while loop. hi! in my program, I use BufferedReader to get a string at a time from another program using socket. The clear () method of java. while ((num_of_bytes = recv( c_socket, memblock, file_buf, 0 )) > 0) dest. std::cout<< buffer << std::endl; If I initialize the buffer variable to NULL or "0", the recv() returns-1, that is it doesn't accept the incoming string. prepend each message with its length in bytes, or terminate it in. hi! in my program, I use BufferedReader to get a string at a time from another program using socket. SetSocketOption (SocketOptionLevel. Reasons a computer may keep buffering while streaming videos include the video being viewed by several people at the same time, slow Internet speed, several electronic devices being used on a single r. Pausing a socket /sockpause [-r] The /sockpause command pauses/restarts a socket when reading incoming data. Buffers are an important part of the biochemical processes of living things because they help keep the pH within organisms’ body stable. packets are still retained inside the kernel buffer as it is). To help minimization of packet loss, the operating system socket buffers need to be large enough to handle the incoming network traffic while your Java . Most biochemical reactions that are essential for life only tak. The clear () method clears the whole buffer. In other words set the amount of memory that is allocated for each TCP socket when it is opened or created while transferring files:”. Tune values Set the max OS send buffer size (wmem) and receive buffer size (rmem) to 12 MB for queues on all protocols. May 9, 2006 #3 Just remember whatever was put into those sockets are destroyed also. The client’s pool socket-buffer size-should match the setting for the servers the. In other words set the amount of memory that is allocated for each TCP socket when it is opened or created while transferring files:". Clear the socket buffer. Pause the video for a few minutes. there, but you can prevent datagrams from being stored in the buffer. This post explains socket use pretty well, and also has sample code for building a message-based protocol. 1 solution Solution 1 UDP uses a shared message pool , therefore once a message was sent out it is available to all clients (unless specified port is connected to a peer) and stays intact until next datagram. I experienced some data left in the socket buffer after a thread was killed between a 'socket_send' and a 'socket_read'. BeginReceive return zero length buffer when run ,and work correctly when use step by step debug mode. It seems to me that in your code you delete the received data before printing it - then you pass a string to printf that is basically empty, . The Socket Buffers. The buffer contents should change every time you get the completion of the async-receive. iResult = recv(ThreadSocket, recvbuf, recvbuflen, 0); if ( iResult>0 ) { for(int j=0;j<=iResult;j++) common[j]=recvbuf[j]; //NOW I WANT TO . I had set socket buffer like this. You may have to register or Login before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. Provides support for Ethernet, GPIB,. The whole code is produced below. How to empty the variable buffer in recv() before accepting a …. The buffer size can vary widely from a few kB to several MB. to come in order, and duplicate packets may arrive. Set the max OS send buffer size (wmem) and receive buffer size (rmem) to 12 MB for queues on all protocols. The fflush function can be used to flush all streams currently opened. In standard C/C++, streams are buffered, for example in the case of standard input, when we press the key on keyboard, it isn't sent to your program, rather it is buffered by operating system till the time is allotted to that. There is no way to clear the socket receive buffer other than by reading from it. I would write the loop like this though: Code: while ( (num_of_bytes = recv ( c_socket, memblock, file_buf, 0 )) > 0) dest. buf_size =16*1024; err = setsockopt ( m_hSock, SOL_SOCKET, SO_SNDBUF, (char *)&buf_size, sizeof (buf_size)); Everything ok while sending data to client My question is. How do I stop buffering? Steps 1. All in all, I use flush and it works. The way to get rid of this is to use cin. This function is used to remove and return a socket buffer from the pool of used socket buffers of the current processor. This means that the packet has now a headroom of 16 bytes and a tailroom of length bytes. Once you have read all the data, you need to clear the buffer, to make it ready for writing again. Learn how to use Unix domain socket channels in Java 16. How to clear Windows 10 memory cache and buffers?. rmem_max respectively then the so_sndbuf/so_rcvbuf value will be silently replaced by these * mem_max value. You should already be an expert at writing Aliases, Popups, and Scripts before attempting to use sockets. FIONBIO is an alternative way to set/clear . TCP is a stream protocol, so it makes sense that you are unable to rely on certain number of actual recv calls. io send buffer after connection timeout · Issue #1532 · feathersjs/feathers · GitHub. When the userspace process actually calls read(2) on the file descriptor it causes the kernel to remove the data from its receive buffer, and to . If you set so_sndbuf/so_rcvbuff value more than net. u = udpport; % ⋮ flush (u, "input") Clear both the input and output buffers. How do I clear the socket recv buffer. , lwip_write() (the write() alias . 2) The internet can break up your "packet" so that less than a full packet. You can do this in two ways: By calling clear () or by calling compact (). NET Framework Networking and Communication. in your code you have a while true loop - may i suggest that you alter it so that you define a meaningful boolean variable instead, so you code becomes private sub readsocket () dim loopforever as boolean = true while loopforever 'do stuff end while end sub i find this more readable and more obvious when you come back to look at the code …. ignore() takes 2 parameters an integer for the number of characters to ignore and a delimiter which will basically clearing the buffer if it reaches that character. Clear UDP Buffer Data. (that is incoming packets are discorded and buffer holding. StateObject state = (StateObject)ar. By using this website, you agree with our Cookies Policy. How can I tune the TCP Socket Buffers?. What Is the Definition of Buffering Capacity?. My "buffer emptying" function is then just this ("Listener" is my socket): def FlushListen(self): while 1: try: PacketBytes = self. Remove the message from the receive data, and then process the receive message. The compact () method only clears the. I experienced some data left in the socket buffer after a thread was killed between a ‘socket_send’ and a ‘socket_read’. A general buffer capacity estimate is 40 percent of the t. We’ve now discussed most of the issues related to network interfaces. How to empty a socket in python?. At a minimum, follow the guidelines listed here. Provides support for Ethernet, GPIB, serial, USB, and other types of instruments. buffer passed to recv. Clearly the by-protocol lines above aren't displaying the totality of the socket activity. I have a receiver buffer in which i am receiving data from the recv (); call i want to clear the buffer after receiving data from the recv (); call in to the buffer. NOTE! Workaround is to restart Docker from tasktray (wonder why it is painly slow). Using DataOutputStream i write the data and reads the respective data using BufferedReader. The ability to manually clear memory cache and buffers is critical and essential when switching from one major intensively memory workload to another, else you'd have to. Could someone show me a sample how to flush the socket sending buffer? Thanks a lot. Buffering capacity is defined as the number of moles of strong base or acid needed to change the pH of a liter of buffer solution by one unit. This means our socket is going to attempt to receive data, in a buffer size of 1024 It's empty. buffer, 0, bytesRead) Do While (state. Using “ while ((getchar()) != ‘\n’); ” : Typing “while ((getchar()) != ‘\n’);” reads the buffer characters till the end and discards them(including newline) and using it after the. i thought the dropping on packet will happen at head of the UDP buffer. If the read buffer is empty, the system will return from recv() immediately saying ``"Operation Would Block!"''. To accomplish this you need to set the socket receive buffer to 0 before suspending reception of incoming packets. The socket-buffer-size setting in gemfire. We have developed a socket program as below, The program works fine, except that it sometimes gives me jumbled messages or same message gets repeated twice. i can make out one think from your reply that UDP buffer all the time. I am new to python, and I am trying to send a message over a TCP socket to another component (client). A temporary storage area is called buffer. Sockets should always be closed after they have. I want to clear data in the buffer and send data immediately sometimes. Socket support allows you to create your own raw socket connections in order to send and receive information. The UDP buffer contents are listed in the “rx_queue” column of the UDP socket table dump. How to flush socket buffer in C++ (Not VC++. ByteBuffer clear () methods in Java with Examples. The sender blocks when the socket send buffer is full, so buffers will be full at both ends . You can run the sysctl command on linux to get and set all these kernel configuration. Here we can see this socket has Receive Buffer 369280 bytes, and Transmit Buffer 87040 bytes. How can i clear buffer memory in a asynchronous …. AsyncState; int nBytesRec = sock. For example, in the case of C after encountering “scanf()”, if we need to input a character array or character, and in the case of C++, after encountering the “cin” statement, we require to input a character array or a string, we require to clear the input buffer or else the desired input is occupied by a buffer of the previous variable. Ignoring the receive length, and assuming the data fills the buffer and/or is null-terminated. block of sockets - send and recv operate on the network buffers. You need to read each message and then remove the message from the receive data. If the datagram or message is larger than the . Besides, even if it drops unsynced data, saying that typing the sync command just before clearing cache would save your data is wrong: there is a non zero time between the sync command drop_cache write, so any data could be added during this time lapse. More from Vic: So to sum it all up, if you are having trouble and need to flush the socket, setting the TCP_NODELAY option will usually solve the problem. recv(buffer_size) if not data: break print data client_socket. The position is set to zero, the limit is set. So you are using cin to fetch a single character and the buffer still has junk in it because your user entered nonsense. - oleksii May 22, 2013 at 16:32 1 Basically you have a bug in your code, but haven't included your code. How to flush socket buffer in C++ (Not VC++. But then I have the client open the socket again, send data to the server, and the server will once again send data. Solved] How to query tcp buffer sizes for a certain socket?. While this is useful in some situations it does often more than necessary since it might . It returns zero if successful, otherwise returns EOF and feof error indicator is set. View the returned catalog list. data = client_socket. Welcome to part 2 of the sockets tutorial with Python. To accomplish this you need to set the socket receive buffer to 0 before suspending reception of incoming packets. ii) Is there way to clear the internal buffer of UDP socket. netstat -s reports packet loss due to a low socket buffer. In case of C : Using “ while ( (getchar ()) != ‘ ’); ” : Typing “while ( (getchar ()) != ‘ ’);” reads the buffer characters till the end and discards them (including newline) and using it after the “scanf ()”. Here is the syntax of fflush (stdin) to clear the input buffer in C language, int fflush (FILE *stream);. All standard input and output devices contain an input and output buffer. How do you flush a socket in C?. The stack itself implements flow control so that if the server's buffer is full, it will stop the client stack from sending more data. This might be a symptom of one or more applications that didn't return system resources (like memory) properly. The function fflush (stdin) is used to flush or clear the output buffer of the stream. When it is used after the scanf (), it flushes the input buffer also. TCP's urgent pointer has a sequence number one greater . Seeing what's in the buffers and cache Take a look at linux-ftools if you'd like to analyze the contents of the buffers & cache. In the urscript interface module, there is no way to clear the communication socket buffer. If the name is an empty string or the option length is zero, the socket device . aspx?cs-save-lang=1&cs-lang=vb#code-snippet-2. buf_size =16*1024; err = setsockopt ( m_hSock, SOL_SOCKET, SO_SNDBUF, (char *)&buf_size, sizeof (buf_size)); Everything ok while sending data to client My question is. ReceiveBuffer, 0); This will prevent additional datagrams from entering the socket. I am seeing packet loss due to socket buffer overrun. std::cout<< buffer << std::endl; If I initialize the buffer variable to NULL or "0", the recv() returns-1, that is it doesn't accept the incoming. // Echo the data back to the client. time consuming and destroying the stream also closes the socket if im not mistaken. If I reboot my PC, I cannot send/receive data anymore, because I get the following error: No buffer space available. 7 I am trying to send some data to a server using socket. May 9, 2006 #2 Hel rune + TP scroll + transmute = clean sockets. The stack itself implements flow control so that if the server’s buffer is full, it will stop the client stack from. Changing TCP socket buffer sizes o…. # create an INET, STREAMing socket serversocket = socket. How to clear the intenal buffer of a socket? reply views Thread by Robin the Round | last post: by C# / C Sharp. ByteBuffer Class is used to clear this buffer. FIONREAD returns the number of bytes of pending data already received in the socket's network buffer. So you won't get the runes/jewels/gems back if you do unsocket it. 2) You do not clearly state what you mean 3) You posted that same question some hours/days ago already. How does socket buffer work? TCP sockets use buffering in the protocol stack. You maintain a buffer and use send() to send data. This means ob_flush() should be called before flush() to flush the output buffers if they are . A blocking recv () will return 0 in that case (known as graceful close). clear (); // Prepare buffer for reading in. We've now discussed most of the issues related to network interfaces. So you are using cin to fetch a single character and the buffer still has junk in it because your user entered nonsense. How do I stop buffering? Steps 1. Clearing socket. The Socket Buffers. If you are finding unwanted data then you should look at where this is coming from and why, rather than trying to ignore it. I experienced some data left in the socket buffer after a thread was killed. Nevertheless; since you don't have a fixed buffer denoted as seen from you posted code and receive it via the SocketAsyncEventArgs, you could clear it with: Array. The -m switch of ss gives socket memory info. As I mentioned above, Network framework is designed to live . When the server sends data once and closes the socket, it works perfectly. ) First the function uses alloc_skb() to obtain a. You can not flush the socket buffer data without reading what's in. We'll show how a TCP socket can timeout during various stages of its lifetime, For keepalives to work, the send buffer must be empty. How can I empty the buffer if they continue to fill it? This post explains socket use pretty well, and also has sample code for building a . , the socket should show TIME_WAIT and be gone in 2 minutes or so. Also note that (from the Linux manpage):. Ignoring the receive length, and assuming the data fills the buffer and/or is null-terminated. public static void ReadCallback (IAsyncResult ar) { String content = String. how to clear socket buffer. Socket buffers are the short queues of packets the kernel holds on behalf often enough to try to keep the kernel's receive buffer empty. I had set socket buffer like this. flush( u ) flushes all data from both the input and output buffers of the specified UDP socket. UDP uses a shared message pool , therefore once a message was sent out it is available to all clients (unless specified port is connected to a peer) and stays intact until next. close() Also, is that second "if not data: break" statement necessary? It seems like once you get past the first if, you don't need the second one. Is it impossible to do with TCP? Correct. From my understanding (and from what I see on this board) just . It works for your current circumstances: 1) If your receiver gets busy it can still read more than one "packet" at. But, it won't wait for that data. SOCK_STREAM) # bind the socket to a public host, and a well-known port serversocket. clear() or buffer. The socket-buffer-size setting in gemfire. NoDelay = true ; // Send (handler, content); handler. Marking a socket /sockmark [text]. How to clear the intenal buffer of a socket? reply views Thread by Robin the Round | last post: by C# / C Sharp. how to clear socket buffer. To find the actual memory usage, /proc/net/sockstat is the most promising: sockets: used 3640 TCP: inuse 48 orphan 49 tw 63 alloc 2620 mem 248 UDP: inuse 6 mem 10 UDPLITE: inuse 0 RAW: inuse 0 FRAG: inuse 0 memory 0. This allows your streaming video to build a bigger buffer. buf_size =16*1024; err = setsockopt ( m_hSock, SOL_SOCKET, SO_SNDBUF, (char *)&buf_size, sizeof (buf_size));. it provides a socket interface, from ip addr: 5: can0: mtu 16 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 10 link/can On the bus there are other devices that sends data continuously. This method does not actually erase the data in the buffer, but it is named as if it did because it. Quit all other background programs. Introduction to Sockets Programming in C using TCP/IP. UDP Socket: How to clear the buffer and ignore oldes messages. Create a udpport object, and clear its buffer. Why Would a Computer Keep Buffering?. How to clear the intenal buffer of a socket? Robin the Round Hi, I'm writing a UDP Listener to monitor all incoming UDP messages: private void ReceiveThreadFkt() EndPoint recEP =new IPEndPoint(IPAddress. How to clear the intenal buffer of a socket?. What’s still missing is some more detailed discussion of the sk_buff structure. Why Are Buffers Important to Living Organisms?. This memory block is wrapped in a NIO Buffer object, which provides a set of methods that makes it easier to work with the memory block. The problem is that you are treating an unix integer file descriptor (ufd) as a C style FILE pointer. The stack itself implements flow control so that if the server’s buffer is full, it will stop the client stack from sending more data. This allows the video to play longer before it needs to buffer. Here we can see this socket has Receive Buffer 369280 bytes, and Transmit Buffer 87040 bytes. See all Driver Software Downloads. If you are just trying to shut down at the end try this link: GraceFul Shutdown HTH, ahoodin To keep the plot moving, that's why. To find the actual memory usage, /proc/net/sockstat is the most promising: sockets: used 3640 TCP: inuse 48 orphan 49 tw 63 alloc 2620 mem 248 UDP: inuse 6 mem 10 UDPLITE: inuse 0 RAW: inuse 0 FRAG: inuse 0 memory 0. Any,6000); while(false == receiveThreadAbort) // Allow thread to sleep completely if(receiveThreadSleep == false). On Linux, you can change the UDP buffer size (e. There's no way to set socket buffer sizes in Network framework. You haven't answered my other three questions. GetString(m_byBuff, 0, nBytesRec);. ByteBuffer clear () methods in Java with Examples. Keep in mind the kernel will double any socket buffer allocation for overhead. workSocket; // Read data from the client socket. Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) Subscriber exclusive content. WinSocket 2 ] Flush socket. Socket Server buffer size. EndReceive(asyn); string sReceived = System. Receive (); in a while (true) loop (from the article you linked). The A and B datagrams are getting likely getting coalesced before being sent out and may be received in a single recv call on the server. properties should be the same throughout your cluster. TCP will not preserve message boundaries for you. I'm a bit puzzled by your question. In the urscript interface module, there is no way to clear the communication socket buffer. Sockets Tutorial with Python 3 part 1. io send buffer after connection timeout · Issue #1532 · feathersjs/feathers · GitHub. You need to read each message and then remove the message from the receive data. I have to send the message in chunks of 1024 bytes in response to client REQ. You can find the pid with script below. The problem is that when first chunk of 1024 bytes is received by the client, it contains a character string appended at the end from the Initial Message that the.